Reproduction of Human Resources in Urban and Rural Areas of Russia: What the Number of Children Depends On

Svetlana KOSTINA, Ekaterina ZAITSEVA


The urbanization processes in Russia have had a significant impact on the state of human resources in urban and rural areas, including the decline in the birth rate. As part of this study, the authors studied the characteristics of the births of the first and subsequent children in urban and rural areas, as well as the influence of such factors as the level of per capita incomes of the population. In the course of analysis based on averaged time data for the subjects of the Russian Federation from 2010 to 2017, a cross section was conducted. His results showed the presence of various, sometimes opposite fertility trends of the first and subsequent children among the population in urban and rural areas. So, the birth of the first child both in the city and in the village practically does not depend on the income level of the population. With respect to subsequent children, the opposite trend is observed—in the city, with the growth of income, the total birth rate of second and subsequent children decreases, while in rural areas it grows. According to the authors, these processes are influenced not only by objective factors—the proportion of women of reproductive age, but also subjective—by the features of reproductive behavior, including an increase in the age of birth of the first child in rural areas.


Urban and rural areas, The order of births, The total fertility rate, Per capita income, Human resources


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