Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Fragments Safety Distances from Different Sources



Fragments produced in a high explosive event are a danger to personnel and materials. In many cases, the use of a classical physics formula for flight trajectory and range is not sufficient for safety distance evaluation. The uncertainty in fragment velocity, energy, projection angle, spray density and other engineering parameters, leads to a variety of possible results. In this work, a new cumulative-empirical approach is applied. Different sources based on standard and tailor-made munitions were compared. A conservative approach based on fragments cut-off velocity was formulized. A mathematical model for minimal safety distance evaluation is presented. The model takes into account the fragment's main characteristics, such as initial fragment velocity and case thickness. The model presented allows its application in a wide range of cases, especially when warhead parameters are uncertain.

Full Text: