Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Interfacial Properties of Hybrid Cellulose Nanocrystal/Carbonaceous Nanomaterial Composites



Cellulose nanocrystal (CNCs) assisted carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) were used to modify the interfacial region of carbon fiber (CF) and polymer matrix to strengthen the properties of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). Before transferring CNC-CNTs and CNC-GnPs on the CF surface by an immersion coating method, the nanomaterials were dispersed in DI water homogeneously by using probe sonication technique without additives. The results showed that the addition of CNC-CNT and CNC-GnP adjusted the interfacial chemistry of CFRP with the formation of polar groups. Furthermore, according to the single fiber fragmentation test (SFFT), the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of CNC-GnP 6:1 and CNC-CNT 10:1 added CFRP increased to 55 MPa and 64 MPa due to modified interfacial chemistry by the incorporation of the nanomaterials. This processing technique also resulted in improvement in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) in CFRPs from 35 MPa (neat composite) to 45 (CNC-GnP 6:1) MPa and 52 MPa (CNC-CNT 10:1).


Full Text:



Batista, M. D. R.; Drzal, L. T., Carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composite interphases modified with cellulose nanocrystals. Composites Science and Technology 2018, 164, 274-281.

Qin, W.; Vautard, F.; Drzal, L. T.; Yu, J., Mechanical and electrical properties of carbon fiber composites with incorporation of graphene nanoplatelets at the fiber–matrix interphase. Composites Part B: Engineering 2015, 69, 335-341.

Asadi, A.; Miller, M.; Moon, R.; Kalaitzidou, K., Improving the interfacial and mechanical properties of short glass fiber/epoxy composites by coating the glass fibers with cellulose nanocrystals. Express Polymer Letters, Vol. 10 (7): 11 pages.: 587-597. 2016, 10 (7), 587-597.

Park, J. K.; Lee, J. Y.; Drzal, L. T.; Cho, D., Flexural properties, interlaminar shear strength and morphology of phenolic matrix composites reinforced with xGnP-coated carbon fibers. Carbon letters 2016, 17 (1), 33-38.

Wang, Z.; Huang, X.; Xian, G.; Li, H., Effects of surface treatment of carbon fiber: Tensile property, surface characteristics, and bonding to epoxy. Polymer Composites 2016, 37 (10), 2921-2932.

Yuan, C.; Li, D.; Yuan, X.; Liu, L.; Huang, Y., Preparation of semi-aliphatic polyimide for organic-solvent-free sizing agent in CF/PEEK composites. Composites Science and Technology 2021, 201, 108490.

Shariatnia, S.; Kumar, A. V.; Kaynan, O.; Asadi, A., Hybrid Cellulose Nanocrystals-Bonded Carbon Nanotubes/Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites for Structural Applications. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2020.

Yao, X.; Gao, X.; Jiang, J.; Xu, C.; Deng, C.; Wang, J., Comparison of carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide coated carbon fiber for improving the interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Composites Part B: Engineering 2018, 132, 170-177.

Szabó, L. s.; Imanishi, S.; Hirose, D.; Tsukegi, T.; Wada, N.; Takahashi, K., Mussel-Inspired Design of a Carbon Fiber–Cellulosic Polymer Interface toward Engineered Biobased Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Composites. ACS omega 2020, 5 (42), 27072-27082.

Hajian, A.; Lindstrom, S. B.; Pettersson, T.; Hamedi, M. M.; Wagberg, L., Understanding the dispersive action of nanocellulose for carbon nanomaterials. Nano letters 2017, 17 (3), 1439-1447.

Kelly, A.; Tyson, a. W., Tensile properties of fibre-reinforced metals: copper/tungsten and copper/molybdenum. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 1965, 13 (6), 329-350.


  • There are currently no refbacks.