Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Dispersion of Cobalt Ferrite Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelets in PLA for EMI Shielding Applications

KANAT ANURAKPARADORN, ALAN TAUB, ERIC MICHIELSSEN

Abstract


The proliferation of wireless technology calls for the development of cost-effective Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding materials that reduce the susceptibility of high-speed electronic circuits to undesired incoming radiation. Ideally, such materials offer protection over wide frequency ranges and are insensitive to the polarization or angle of incidence of the impinging fields. Here, next-generation EMI shielding materials composed of polymer composites with conductive and magnetic fillers are introduced. It is shown that careful control of the concentration and dispersion of the polymers’ conductive and magnetic constituents permits tuning of the composites’ intrinsic electrical and magnetic properties. The resulting EMI shields are lightweight, cheap and offer greater protection than traditional metal gaskets and foams. In this work, cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) decorated on graphene-based material were dispersed in polylactic acid (PLA) matrix for high EM absorption level in X-band (8-12 GHz). The decoration of the magnetic particles was performed on the as-prepared conductive graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). GNP composites exhibited higher DC conductivity, and permittivity than rGO composites. This is attributed to issues associated with the reduction process, including a lack of conductivity due to the insulated oxygen functional groups and the reduction in the lateral size. Compared with rGOs, the lack of out-plane functional groups causes the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles to agglomerate and not cover the entire surface of the GNPs. These morphological differences improve the magnetization and EM absorption of the composite system. The compatibilizer (pyrene-PLA-OH) was added to the composites to enhance dispersion of the GNPs in the polymer matrix which benefits in higher absorption of the shield. The influence of the compatibilizer on parameter, the reflection loss (RL) of the composite were determined from the characterized intrinsic properties


DOI
10.12783/asc36/35905

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kong, L.B., Z.W. Li, L. Liu, R. Huang, M. Abshinova, Z.H. Yang, C.B. Tang, P.K. Tan, C.R.

Deng, and S. Matitsine. 2013. “Recent Progress in Some Composite Materials and Structures

for Specific Electromagnetic Applications.” International Materials Reviews 58 (4): 203–59.

Jahn, O. 2000. “Electromagnetic Fields: Low Dose Exposure, Current Update.” International

Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 73 (SUPPL. JUN.): 18–20.

Ziegelberger, G., R. Croft, M. Feychting, A.C. Green, A. Hirata, G. d’Inzeo, K. Jokela, et al.

Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (100 KHz to 300 GHz).

Health Physics. Vol. 118.

Jayalakshmi, C.G., A. Inamdar, A. Anand, and B. Kandasubramanian. 2019. “Polymer Matrix

Composites as Broadband Radar Absorbing Structures for Stealth Aircrafts.” Journal of Applied

Polymer Science 136 (14): 1–21.

Ranjan, P., A. Choubey, and S.K. Mahto. 2018. “A Novel Approach for Optimal Design of

Multilayer Wideband Microwave Absorber Using Wind Driven Optimization Technique.” AEU

- International Journal of Electronics and Communications 83: 81–87.

Mouna, H., V. Mekaladevi, and M. Nirmala Devi. 2018. “Design of Microwave Absorbers

Using Improvised Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm.” Journal of Microwaves,

Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications 17 (2): 188–200.

Ding, F., Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He. 2012. “Ultra-Broadband Microwave Metamaterial

Absorber.” Applied Physics Letters 100 (10): 1–5.

Xiaopeng Shen, Tie Jun Cui, Junming Zhao, Hui Feng Ma, Wei Xiang Jiang, and H.L. 2011.

“Polarization-Independent Wide-Angle Triple-Band Metamaterial Absorber.” Optics Express

(10): 9401–7.

S. Geetha, K. K. Satheesh Kumar, Chepuri R. K. Rao, M. Vijayan, D.C.T. 2009. “EMI

Shielding: Methods and Materials—A Review S.” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 112 (5):

–2086.

Devender and S.R. Ramasamy. 1997. “Review of EMI Shielding and Suppression Materials.”

In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetic Interference and

Compatibility, 459–66.

Pardoen, T., C. Bailly, J. Thomassin, C. Je, I. Huynen, and C. Detrembleur. 2013. “Polymer /

Carbon Based Composites as Electromagnetic Interference ( EMI ) Shielding Materials” 74:

–32.

Chen, Y., Y. Wang, H. Bin Zhang, X. Li, C.X. Gui, and Z.Z. Yu. 2015. “Enhanced

Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Efficiency of Polystyrene/Graphene Composites with

Magnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles.” Carbon 82 (C): 67–76.

Gholampoor, M., F. Movassagh-Alanagh, and H. Salimkhani. 2017. “Fabrication of Nano-

Fe3O4 3D Structure on Carbon Fibers as a Microwave Absorber and EMI Shielding Composite

by Modified EPD Method.” Solid State Sciences 64: 51–61.

Liu, Y., M. Lu, K. Wu, S. Yao, X. Du, G. Chen, Q. Zhang, L. Liang, and M. Lu. 2019.

“Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding of Epoxy

Nanocomposites Based on Magnetic Driving Reduced Graphene Oxide@Fe 3 O 4.”

Composites Science and Technology 174 (December 2018): 1–10.

Kumar, R., H.K. Choudhary, S.P. Pawar, S. Bose, and B. Sahoo. 2017. “Carbon Encapsulated

Nanoscale Iron/Iron-Carbide/Graphite Particles for EMI Shielding and Microwave Absorption.”

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 19 (34): 23268–79.

Zhao, B., C. Zhao, R. Li, S.M. Hamidinejad, and C.B. Park. 2017. “Flexible , Ultrathin , and

High-E Ffi Ciency Electromagnetic Shielding Properties of Poly ( Vinylidene Fluoride )/

Carbon Composite Films.”

Cheng, H., S. Wei, Y. Ji, J. Zhai, X. Zhang, and J. Chen. 2019. “Synergetic e Ff Ect of Fe 3 O 4

Nanoparticles and Carbon on Fl Exible Poly ( Vinylidence Fl Uoride ) Based Fi Lms with

Higher Heat Dissipation to Improve Electromagnetic Shielding.” Composites Part A 121

(February): 139–48.

Quan, B., X. Liang, G. Ji, Y. Cheng, W. Liu, J. Ma, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and G. Xu. 2017.

“Dielectric Polarization in Electromagnetic Wave Absorption: Review and Perspective.”

Journal of Alloys and Compounds 728: 1065–75.

Cole, K.S. and R.H. Cole. 1942. “Dispersion and Absorption in Dielectrics: II. Direct Current

Characteristics.” The Journal of Chemical Physics 10 (2): 98–105.

Meng, X.M., X.J. Zhang, C. Lu, Y.F. Pan, and G.S. Wang. 2014. “Enhanced Absorbing

Properties of Three-Phase Composites Based on a Thermoplastic-Ceramic Matrix (BaTiO3 +

PVDF) and Carbon Black Nanoparticles.” Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2 (44): 18725–30.

Liu, B., J. Li, L. Wang, J. Ren, and Y. Xu. 2017. “Ultralight Graphene Aerogel Enhanced with

Transformed Micro-Structure Led by Polypyrrole Nano-Rods and Its Improved Microwave

Absorption Properties.” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 97: 141–50.

Guo, Z., Y. Chen, N.L. Lu, X. Yan, L. Xiang, Q. He, J. Gu, J. Dang, J. Guo, and Z. Guo. 2018.

“Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Polymer Nanocomposites.” In Multifunctional

Nanocomposites for Energy and Environmental Applications, 567–601.

Kim, H., A.A. Abdala, and C.W. Macosko. 2010. “Graphene / Polymer Nanocomposites,”

–30.

Meng, F., H. Wang, F. Huang, Y. Guo, Z. Wang, D. Hui, and Z. Zhou. 2018. “Graphene-Based

Microwave Absorbing Composites : A Review and Prospective.” Composites Part B 137

(September 2017): 260–77.

Das, C.K., P. Bhattacharya, and S.S. Kalra. 2012. “Graphene and MWCNT: Potential Candidate

for Microwave Absorbing Materials.” Journal of Materials Science Research 1 (2): 126–32.

Thomassin, J.M., C. Jérôme, T. Pardoen, C. Bailly, I. Huynen, and C. Detrembleur. 2013.

“Polymer/Carbon Based Composites as Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding

Materials.” Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports 74 (7): 211–32.

Joshi, A. and S. Datar. 2015. “Carbon Nanostructure Composite for Electromagnetic

Interference Shielding.” Pramana - Journal of Physics.

Al-Saleh, M.H., G.A. Gelves, and U. Sundararaj. 2011. “Copper Nanowire/Polystyrene

Nanocomposites: Lower Percolation Threshold and Higher EMI Shielding.” Composites Part A:

Applied Science and Manufacturing 42 (1): 92–97.

Joshi, A., A. Bajaj, R. Singh, P.S. Alegaonkar, K. Balasubramanian, and S. Datar. 2014.

“Graphene Nanoribbon-PVA Composite as EMI Shielding Material in the X Band

(Nanotechnology (2013) 24 (455705)).” Nanotechnology 25 (23).

Goyal, R.K. and R. Sulakhe. 2015. “Study on Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)/Nickel Composites

with Low Percolation.” Advanced Materials Letters 6 (4): 309–17.

Panda, M., V. Srinivas, and A.K. Thakur. 2008. “On the Question of Percolation Threshold in

Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Nanocrystalline Nickel Composites.” Applied Physics Letters 92 (13):

–13.

Panda, M., V. Srinivas, and A.K. Thakur. 2008. “Surface and Interfacial Effect of Filler Particle

on Electrical Properties of Polyvinyledene Fluoride/Nickel Composites.” Applied Physics

Letters 93 (24): 242908.

Kashi, S., R.K. Gupta, T. Baum, N. Kao, and S.N. Bhattacharya. 2016. “Dielectric Properties

and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of Graphene-Based Biodegradable

Nanocomposites.” Materials and Design 109: 68–78.

Nasr Esfahani, A., A. Katbab, A. Taeb, L. Simon, and M.A. Pope. 2017. “Correlation between

Mechanical Dissipation and Improved X-Band Electromagnetic Shielding Capabilities of

Amine Functionalized Graphene/Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composites.” European Polymer

Journal 95 (June): 520–38.

Hsiao, S.T., C.C.M. Ma, H.W. Tien, W.H. Liao, Y.S. Wang, S.M. Li, C.Y. Yang, S.C. Lin, and

R. Bin Yang. 2015. “Effect of Covalent Modification of Graphene Nanosheets on the Electrical

Property and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Performance of a Water-Borne

Polyurethane Composite.” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 7 (4): 2817–26.

Wang, T., Y. Li, S. Geng, C. Zhou, X. Jia, F. Yang, L. Zhang, X. Ren, and H. Yang. 2015.

“Preparation of Flexible Reduced Graphene Oxide/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Film with Superior

Microwave Absorption Properties.” RSC Advances 5 (108): 88958–64.

Bai, X., Y. Zhai, and Y. Zhang. 2011. “Green Approach To Prepare Graphene-Based

Composites with High Microwave Absorption Capacity,” 11673–77.

Zhang, J., H. Yang, G. Shen, P. Cheng, J. Zhang, and S. Guo. 2010. “Reduction of Graphene

Oxide via L -Ascorbic Acid.” Chem. Commun. 46 (7): 1112–14.

Pei, S. and H. Cheng. 2012. “The Reduction of Graphene Oxide.” Carbon 50 (9): 3210–28.

Shen, Y., T. Jing, W. Ren, J. Zhang, Z.G. Jiang, Z.Z. Yu, and A. Dasari. 2012. “Chemical and

Thermal Reduction of Graphene Oxide and Its Electrically Conductive Polylactic Acid

Nanocomposites.” Composites Science and Technology 72 (12): 1430–35.

Song, W., X. Guan, L. Fan, W. Cao, Q. Zhao, C. Wang, and M. Cao. 2015. “Tuning Broadband

Microwave Absorption via Highly Conductive Fe 3 O 4 / Graphene Heterostructural

Nanofillers.” Materials Research Bulletin 72: 316–23.

Compton, O.C. and S.T. Nguyen. 2010. “Graphene Oxide, Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide,

and Graphene: Versatile Building Blocks for Carbon-Based Materials.” Small 6 (6): 711–23.

Tong, X.Z., F. Song, M.Q. Li, X.L. Wang, I.J. Chin, and Y.Z. Wang. 2013. “Fabrication of

Graphene/Polylactide Nanocomposites with Improved Properties.” Composites Science and

Technology 88: 33–38.

Zeng, S., X. Li, M. Li, J. Zheng, S. E, W. Yang, B. Zhao, X. Guo, and R. Zhang. 2019.

“Flexible PVDF/CNTs/Ni@CNTs Composite Films Possessing Excellent Electromagnetic

Interference Shielding and Mechanical Properties under Heat Treatment.” Carbon 155: 34–43.

Liao, H., D. Li, C. Zhou, and T. Liu. 2019. “Microporous Co / RGO Nanocomposites : Strong

and Broadband Microwave Absorber with Well-Matched Dielectric and Magnetic Loss” 782:

–65.

Liu, Y., D. Song, C. Wu, and J. Leng. 2014. “EMI Shielding Performance of Nanocomposites

with MWCNTs, Nanosized Fe 3O4 and Fe.” Composites Part B: Engineering 63: 34–40.

Hosseinabadi, S., Z. Sheykhifard, M. Mohseni, M. Kokabi, L. Jamilpanah, M. Hajali, and M.J.

Jafari. 2021. “Preparation Iron-Nickel/Graphene Heterogeneous Composites for Enhanced

Microwave Absorption Performance via Electrochemical Exfoliation/Deposition Technique.”

Materials Chemistry and Physics 260 (July 2020): 124155.

Zong, M., Y. Huang, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Q. Wang, and X. Sun. 2014. “One-Pot Hydrothermal

Synthesis of RGO/CoFe2O4 Composite and Its Excellent Microwave Absorption Properties.”

Materials Letters 114 (January): 52–55.

Ding, Y., Q. Liao, S. Liu, H. Guo, Y. Sun, G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang. 2016. “Reduced Graphene

Oxide Functionalized with Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposites for Enhanced Efficient and

Lightweight Electromagnetic Wave Absorption.” Scientific Reports 6 (April): 1–9.

Liu, L., X.M. Bian, Z.L. Hou, C.Y. Wang, Z.S. Li, H.D. Hu, X. Qi, and X. Zhang. 2016.

“Electromagnetic Response of Magnetic Graphene Hybrid Fillers and Their Evolutionary

Behaviors.” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 27 (3): 2760–72.

Zhao, B. and C.B. Park. 2017. “Conductive Poly ( Vinylidene Fluoride )/ Ni Chain,” 6954–61.

Shen, W., B. Ren, K. Cai, Y. fei Song, and W. Wang. 2019. “Synthesis of Nonstoichiometric

Co0.8Fe2.2O4/Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) Nanocomposites and Their Excellent

Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Property.” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 774: 997–1008.

Tung, T.T., J. Feller, T. Kim, H. Kim, W.S. Yang, and K.S. Suh. 2012. “Electromagnetic

Properties of Fe 3 O 4 -Functionalized Graphene and Its Composites with a Conducting

Polymer,” 927–35.

Wang, C., X. Han, P. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Du, S. Hu, J. Wang, et al. 2012. “The Electromagnetic

Property of Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide and Its Application as Microwave Absorbing

Material” 072906 (December 2010): 1–4.

Li, N., M. Zheng, X. Chang, G. Ji, H. Lu, L. Xue, L. Pan, and J. Cao. 2011. “Preparation of

Magnetic CoFe2O4-Functionalized Graphene Sheets via a Facile Hydrothermal Method and

Their Adsorption Properties.” Journal of Solid State Chemistry 184 (4): 953–58.

Zhang, X.J., G.S. Wang, W.Q. Cao, Y.Z. Wei, J.F. Liang, L. Guo, and M.S. Cao. 2014.

“Enhanced Microwave Absorption Property of Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO)-MnFe2O4

Nanocomposites and Polyvinylidene Fluoride.” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 6 (10):

–78.

Wang, Y., H. Guan, C. Dong, X. Xiao, S. Du, and Y. Wang. 2016. “Reduced Graphene Oxide

( RGO )/ Mn 3 O 4 Nanocomposites for Dielectric Loss Properties and Electromagnetic

Interference Shielding Effectiveness at High Frequency.” Ceramics International 42 (1): 936–

Singh, A.P., M. Mishra, P. Sambyal, B.K. Gupta, B.P. Singh, A. Chandra, and S.K. Dhawan.

“Encapsulation of γ-Fe2O3 Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide in Polyaniline Core-

Shell Tubes as an Exceptional Tracker for Electromagnetic Environmental Pollution.” Journal

of Materials Chemistry A 2 (10): 3581–93.

Bayat, M., H. Yang, F.K. Ko, D. Michelson, and A. Mei. 2014. “Electromagnetic Interference

Shielding Effectiveness of Hybrid Multifunctional Fe 3 O 4 / Carbon Nano Fi Ber Composite”

: 936–43.

Hossein, S., S.H. Mohseni, A. Asadnia, and H. Kerdari. 2011. “Synthesis and Microwave

Absorbing Properties of Polyaniline / MnFe 2 O 4 Nanocomposite.” Journal of Alloys and

Compounds 509 (14): 4682–87.

Yao, Y., Z. Yang, D. Zhang, W. Peng, H. Sun, and S. Wang. 2012. “Magnetic CoFe 2O 4-

Graphene Hybrids: Facile Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Properties.” In Industrial

and Engineering Chemistry Research, 51:6044–51.

Kotutha, I., T. Duangchuen, E. Swatsitang, W. Meewasana, J. Khajonrit, and S. Maensiri. 2019.

“Electrochemical Properties of RGO/CoFe2O4 Nanocomposites for Energy Storage

Application.” Ionics 25 (11): 5401–9.

Zhao, D., X. Wu, H. Guan, and E. Han. 2007. “Study on Supercritical Hydrothermal Synthesis

of CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles.” Journal of Supercritical Fluids 42 (2): 226–33.

Sharifi, I., H. Shokrollahi, M.M. Doroodmand, and R. Safi. 2012. “Magnetic and Structural

Studies on CoFe 2O 4 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Co-Precipitation, Normal Micelles and

Reverse Micelles Methods.” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 324 (10): 1854–61.

Warner, T.E. 2011. “Cobalt Ferrite CoFe2O4 by a Coprecipitation Method.” In Synthesis,

Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials, 4:109–23. Chichester, UK: John

Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Chen, J., B. Yao, C. Li, and G. Shi. 2013. “An Improved Hummers Method for Eco-Friendly

Synthesis of Graphene Oxide.” Carbon 64 (1): 225–29.

Silva, K.K.H. De, H.H. Huang, and M. Yoshimura. 2018. “Progress of Reduction of Graphene

Oxide by Ascorbic Acid.” Applied Surface Science 447: 338–46.

Furst, A., R.C. Berlo, and S. Hooton. 1965. “Hydrazine as a Reducing Agent for Organic

Compounds (Catalytic Hydrazine Reductions).” Chemical Reviews 65 (1): 51–68.

Lashgari, S., M. Karrabi, I. Ghasemi, H. Azizi, and M. Messori. 2016. “Graphene Nanoplatelets

Dispersion in Poly(l-Lactic Acid): Preparation Method and Its Influence on Electrical,

Crystallinity and Thermomechanical Properties.” Iranian Polymer Journal (English Edition) 25

(2): 193–202.

Rothwell, E.J., J.L. Frasch, S.M. Ellison, P. Chahal, and R.O. Ouedraogo. 2016. “Analysis of

the Nicolson-Ross-Weir Method for Characterizing the Electromagnetic Properties of

Engineered Materials.” Progress in Electromagnetics Research 157 (July): 31–47.

Cao, M.S., W.L. Song, Z.L. Hou, B. Wen, and J. Yuan. 2010. “The Effects of Temperature and

Frequency on the Dielectric Properties, Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and Microwave-

Absorption of Short Carbon Fiber/Silica Composites.” Carbon 48 (3): 788–96.

Alam, S.N., N. Sharma, and L. Kumar. 2017. “Synthesis of Graphene Oxide (GO) by Modified

Hummers Method and Its Thermal Reduction to Obtain Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO).”

Graphene 06 (01): 1–18.

Tiliakos, T., R. Physics, A. Cucu, C. Catalin, A. Maria, I. Trefilov, and R. Physics. 2015.

“Graphite Oxide Post-Synthesis Processing Protocols.” In International Journal of Science

Communication.

Journal, I., R. Energy, and E.E. Issn. 2014. “Graphene Oxide Synthesized by Using Modified

Hummers Approach” 02 (01).

Rattana, T., S. Chaiyakun, N. Witit-Anun, N. Nuntawong, P. Chindaudom, S. Oaew, C.

Kedkeaw, and P. Limsuwan. 2012. “Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide

Nanosheets.” In Procedia Engineering, 32:759–64.

Chang, H., Z. Sun, M. Saito, Q. Yuan, H. Zhang, J. Li, Z. Wang, et al. 2013. “Regulating

Infrared Photoresponses in Reduced Graphene Oxide Phototransistors by Defect and Atomic

Structure Control.” ACS Nano 7 (7): 6310–20.

Abid, P. Sehrawat, S.S. Islam, P. Mishra, and S. Ahmad. 2018. “Reduced Graphene Oxide

(RGO) Based Wideband Optical Sensor and the Role of Temperature, Defect States and

Quantum Efficiency.” Scientific Reports 8 (1): 1–13.

Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, M., A. Gholampour, D.N.H. Tran, T. Ozbakkaloglu, and D. Losic.

“Physiochemical and Mechanical Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide–Cement Mortar

Composites: Effect of Reduced Graphene Oxide Particle Size.” Construction and Building

Materials 250: 118832.

Naseri, M.G., E.B. Saion, and S. Setayeshi. 2012. “The Effects and Roles of PVP on the Phase

Composition , Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Prepared

by Thermal Treatment Method” 13 (7): 831–36.

Mathias, H., K. Tedjieukeng, K. Tsobnang, R.L. Fomekong, P. Etape, and P.A. Joy. 2018.

“Properties of Undoped and Copper-Doped Cobalt Coprecipitation Route at Very Low Dopant

Concentrations,” 38621–30.

Meidanchi, A. 2020. “Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide

Sheets: Optical, Magnetic and Magneto-Antibacterial Studies.” Nanotechnology 31 (44).

Mishra, K.A. and S. Ramaprabhu. 2016. “Carbon Dioxide Adsorption in Graphene Sheets.” AIP

Advances 1 032152 (September 2011): 10–16.

Jun Geun Um, Yun-Seok Jun, Ali Elkamel, A.Y. 2020. “Engineering Investigation for the Size

Effect of Graphene Oxide Derived from Graphene Nanoplatelets in Polyurethane Composites,”

no. September 2019: 1084–96.

Peng, X., Y. Li, G. Zhang, F. Zhang, and X. Fan. 2013. “Functionalization of Graphene with

Nitrile Groups by Cycloaddition of Tetracyanoethylene Oxide” 2013.

Çiplak, Z., N. Yildiz, and A. Cąlimli. 2015. “Investigation of Graphene/Ag Nanocomposites

Synthesis Parameters for Two Different Synthesis Methods.” Fullerenes Nanotubes and Carbon

Nanostructures 23 (4): 361–70.

Andrijanto, E., S. Shoelarta, G. Subiyanto, and S. Rifki. 2016. “Facile Synthesis of Graphene

from Graphite Using Ascorbic Acid as Reducing Agent.” In AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol.

Bohara, R.A., N.D. Thorat, H.M. Yadav, and S.H. Pawar. 2014. “One-Step Synthesis of

Uniform and Biocompatible Amine Functionalized Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles: A Potential

Carrier for Biomedical Applications.” New Journal of Chemistry 38 (7): 2979–86.

Karthickraja, D., S. Karthi, G.A. Kumar, D.K. Sardar, G.C. Dannangoda, K.S. Martirosyan, and

E.K. Girija. 2019. “Fabrication of Core-Shell CoFe2O4@HAp Nanoparticles: A Novel

Magnetic Platform for Biomedical Applications.” New Journal of Chemistry 43 (34): 13584–93.

Oliveira, P.N., D.M. Silva, G.S. Dias, I.A. Santos, and L.F. Cótica. 2016. “Synthesis and

Physical Property Measurements of CoFe2O4:BaTiO3 Core-Shell Composite Nanoparticles.”

Ferroelectrics 499 (1): 76–82.

Rana, S., J. Philip, and B. Raj. 2010. “Micelle Based Synthesis of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

and Its Characterization Using Fourier Transform Infrared Transmission Spectrometry and

Thermogravimetry.” Materials Chemistry and Physics 124 (1): 264–69.

Kanagesan, S., M. Hashim, S. Tamilselvan, N.B. Alitheen, I. Ismail, and G. Bahmanrokh. 2013.

“Cytotoxic Effect of Nanocrystalline MgFe2O4 Particles for Cancer Cure.” Journal of

Nanomaterials 2013.

Boobalan, T., N. Suriyanarayanan, and S. Pavithradevi. 2013. “Structural, Magnetic and

Dielectric Properties of Nanocrystalline Cobalt Ferrite by Wet Hydroxyl Chemical Route.”

Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 16 (6): 1695–1700.

Wang, G., Y. Ma, Z. Wei, and M. Qi. 2016. “Development of Multifunctional Cobalt Ferrite /

Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Controlled Drug

Delivery.” CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL 289: 150–60.

Zong, M., Y. Huang, N. Zhang, and H. Wu. 2015. “Influence of ( RGO )/( Ferrite ) Ratios and

Graphene Reduction Degree on Microwave Absorption Properties of Graphene Composites.”

JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS 644: 491–501.

Chieng, B.W., N.A. Ibrahim, W.M.Z.W. Yunus, and M.Z. Hussein. 2014. “Poly(Lactic

Acid)/Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Polymer Nanocomposites: Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelets.”

Polymers 6 (1): 93–104.

Agrawal, N. and S.K. Shahi. 2017. “Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (Pyrene)

Using Novel Fungal Strain Coriolopsis Byrsina Strain APC5.” International Biodeterioration

and Biodegradation 122: 69–81.

Chen, Y., Y. Niu, T. Tian, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, and L.C. Qin. 2017. “Microbial Reduction

of Graphene Oxide by Azotobacter Chroococcum.” Chemical Physics Letters 677 (June 2017):

–47.

Liu, Z., G. Xu, M. Zhang, K. Xiong, and P. Meng. 2016. “Synthesis of CoFe2O4/RGO

Nanocomposites by Click Chemistry and Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Properties.”

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 27 (9): 9278–85.

Wang, Q., Y. Wang, Q. Meng, T. Wang, W. Guo, G. Wu, and L. You. 2017. “Preparation of

High Antistatic HDPE/Polyaniline Encapsulated Graphene Nanoplatelet Composites by

Solution Blending.” RSC Advances 7 (5): 2796–2803.

Gupta, B., N. Kumar, K. Panda, V. Kanan, S. Joshi, and I. Visoly-Fisher. 2017. “Role of

Oxygen Functional Groups in Reduced Graphene Oxide for Lubrication.” Scientific Reports 7:

–14.

Feng, X., Y. Huang, X. Chen, C. Wei, X. Zhang, and M. Chen. 2018. “Hierarchical

CoFe2O4/NiFe2O4 Nanocomposites with Enhanced Electrochemical Capacitive Properties.”

Journal of Materials Science 53 (4): 2648–57.

Thamaphat, K., P. Limsuwan, and B. Ngotawornchai. 2008. “Phase Characterization of TiO 2

Powder by XRD and TEM” 361: 357–61.

Metathesis, O. and O. Metath-. 1987. “Stereocomplex Formation between Enantiomeric” 1 (1):

–6.

Teixeira, E.D.M., A. De Campos, J.M. Marconcini, T.J. Bondancia, D. Wood, A. Klamczynski,

L.H.C. Mattoso, and G.M. Glenn. 2014. “Starch/Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid) Foam and Compressed

Foam Composites.” RSC Advances 4 (13): 6616–23.

Nanaki, S., P. Barmpalexis, A. Iatrou, E. Christodoulou, M. Kostoglou, and D.N. Bikiaris. 2018.

“Risperidone Controlled Release Microspheres Based on Poly(Lactic Acid)-Poly(Propylene

Adipate) Novel Polymer Blends Appropriate for Long Acting Injectable Formulations.”

Pharmaceutics 10 (3).

Mathew, J., M. Sathishkumar, N.K. Kothurkar, R. Senthilkumar, and B. Sabarish Narayanan.

“Polyaniline/Fe3O4-RGO Nanocomposites for Microwave Absorption.” IOP Conference

Series: Materials Science and Engineering 310 (1).

Tarhini, A., A. Tehrani-Bagha, M. Kazan, and B. Grady. 2021. “The Effect of Graphene Flake

Size on the Properties of Graphene-Based Polymer Composite Films.” Journal of Applied

Polymer Science 138 (6): 1–10.

Fu, M., Q. Jiao, Y. Zhao, and H. Li. 2014. “Vapor Diffusion Synthesis of CoFe2O4 Hollow

Sphere/Graphene Composites as Absorbing Materials.” Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2 (3):

–44.

Allaedini, G., S.M. Tasirin, and P. Aminayi. 2015. “Magnetic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite

Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method.” International Nano Letters 5 (4): 183–86.

Gill, N., A.L. Sharma, V. Gupta, M. Tomar, O.P. Pandey, and D.P. Singh. 2019. “Enhanced

Microwave Absorption and Suppressed Reflection of Polypyrrole-Cobalt Ferrite-Graphene

Nanocomposite in X-Band.” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 797: 1190–97.

Grigorova, M., H.J. Blythe, V. Blaskov, V. Rusanov, V. Petkov, V. Masheva, D. Nihtianova,

L.M. Martinez, J.S. Muñoz, and M. Mikhov. 1998. “Magnetic Properties and Mössbauer

Spectra of Nanosized CoFe2O4 Powders.” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 183

(1–2): 163–72.

Arun, T., S.K. Verma, P.K. Panda, R.J. Joseyphus, E. Jha, A. Akbari-Fakhrabadi, P. Sengupta,

et al. 2019. “Facile Synthesized Novel Hybrid Graphene Oxide/Cobalt Ferrite Magnetic

Nanoparticles Based Surface Coating Material Inhibit Bacterial Secretion Pathway for

Antibacterial Effect.” Materials Science and Engineering C 104 (July): 109932.

Alyami, M., M. Khashab, and P.M.F.J. Costa. 2019. “Cobalt Ferrite Supported on Reduced

Graphene Oxide as a T 2 Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging †,” 6299–6309.

Meidanchi, A. 2020. “Graphene Oxide Sheets : Optical , Magnetic and Cobalt Ferrite

Nanoparticles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets : Optical , Magnetic and

Magneto-Antibacterial Studies.”

Ateia, E.E., M.K.A.M.M. Arman, R. Ramadan, and A.S. Shafaay. 2019. “Optimizing the

Physical Properties of Cobalt / Graphene Nanocomposites for Technological Applications.”

Applied Physics A 125 (8): 1–8.

Kim, S.S., S.B. Jo, K.I. Gueon, K.K. Choi, J.M. Kim, and K.S. Churn. 1991. “Complex

Permeability and Permittivity and Microwave Absorption of Ferrite-Rubber Composite in XBand

Frequencies.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 27 (6): 5462–64.

Zhang, X.J., G.S. Wang, Y.Z. Wei, L. Guo, and M.S. Cao. 2013. “Polymer-Composite with

High Dielectric Constant and Enhanced Absorption Properties Based on Graphene-CuS

Nanocomposites and Polyvinylidene Fluoride.” Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1 (39):

–22.

Wang, Z., G. Wei, and G.L. Zhao. 2013. “Enhanced Electromagnetic Wave Shielding

Effectiveness of Fe Doped Carbon Nanotubes/Epoxy Composites.” Applied Physics Letters 103

(18).

Shahzad, F., S. Yu, P. Kumar, J.W. Lee, Y.H. Kim, S.M. Hong, and C.M. Koo. 2015. “Sulfur

Doped Graphene/Polystyrene Nanocomposites for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding.”

Composite Structures 133: 1267–75.

Bera, R., A. Maitra, S. Paria, S.K. Karan, A.K. Das, A. Bera, S.K. Si, L. Halder, A. De, and B.B.

Khatua. 2018. “An Approach to Widen the Electromagnetic Shielding Efficiency in

PDMS/Ferrous Ferric Oxide Decorated RGO–SWCNH Composite through Pressure Induced

Tunability.” Chemical Engineering Journal 335 (August 2017): 501–9.

Huang, Y., N. Li, Y. Ma, F. Du, F. Li, X. He, X. Lin, H. Gao, and Y. Chen. 2007. “The

Influence of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Structure on the Electromagnetic Interference

Shielding Efficiency of Its Epoxy Composites.” Carbon 45 (8): 1614–21.

Liu, Z., G. Bai, Y. Huang, Y. Ma, F. Du, F. Li, T. Guo, and Y. Chen. 2007. “Reflection and

Absorption Contributions to the Electromagnetic Interference Shielding of Single-Walled

Carbon Nanotube/Polyurethane Composites.” Carbon 45 (4): 821–27.

Choudhary, H.K., R. Kumar, S.P. Pawar, A. V. Anupama, S. Bose, and B. Sahoo. 2018. “Effect

of Coral-Shaped Yttrium Iron Garnet Particles on the EMI Shielding Behaviour of Yttrium Iron

Garnet-Polyaniline-Wax Composites.” ChemistrySelect 3 (7): 2120–30.

Shi, S., L. Zhang, and J. Li. 2009. “Complex Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference

Shielding Properties of Ti3SiC2/Polyaniline Composites.” Journal of Materials Science 44 (4):

–48.

Nasouri, K., A.M. Shoushtari, and M.R.M. Mojtahedi. 2016. “Theoretical and Experimental

Studies on EMI Shielding Mechanisms of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced High

Performance Composite Nanofibers.” Journal of Polymer Research 23 (4): 3–10.

Ni, J., R. Zhan, J. Qiu, J. Fan, B. Dong, and Z. Guo. 2020. “Multi-Interfaced Graphene

Aerogel/Polydimethylsiloxane Metacomposites with Tunable Electrical Conductivity for

Enhanced Electromagnetic Interference Shielding.” Journal of Materials Chemistry C 8 (34):

–59.

Snarskii, A.A., A.K. Sarychev, I. V. Bezsudnov, and A.N. Lagarkov. 2012. “Thermoelectric

Figure of Merit for Bulk Nanostructured Composites with Distributed Parameters.”

Semiconductors 46 (5): 659–65.

Bregman, A., E. Michielssen, and A. Taub. 2019. “Comparison of Experimental and Modeled

EMI Shielding Properties of Periodic Porous XGNP/PLA Composites.” Polymers 11 (8).

Micheli, D., C. Apollo, R. Pastore, and M. Marchetti. 2010. “X-Band Microwave

Characterization of Carbon-Based Nanocomposite Material, Absorption Capability Comparison

and RAS Design Simulation.” Composites Science and Technology 70 (2): 400–409.

Liu, P., Z. Yao, J. Zhou, Z. Yang, and L.B. Kong. 2016. “Small Magnetic Co-Doped NiZn

Ferrite/Graphene Nanocomposites and Their Dual-Region Microwave Absorption Performance.”

Journal of Materials Chemistry C 4 (41): 9738–49.

Du, Y., W. Liu, R. Qiang, Y. Wang, X. Han, J. Ma, and P. Xu. 2014. “Shell Thickness-

Dependent Microwave Absorption of Core–Shell Fe 3 O 4 @C Composites.” ACS Applied

Materials & Interfaces 6 (15): 12997–6.

Dhakate, S.R., K.M. Subhedar, and B.P. Singh. 2015. “Polymer Nanocomposite Foam Filled

with Carbon Nanomaterials as an Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Material.”

RSC Advances 5 (54): 43036–57.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.