Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Cyclic Thermoresistivity of Carbon Nanotube Yarn/Silicone Rubber Matrix Monofilament Composites



Thermoresistive characterization of CNTY monofilament composites was investigated by using the electrical response of a single carbon nanotube yarn (CNTY) embedded in a silicone polymer forming monofilament composites. Two room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubbers with different polymerization mechanisms (OOMOO and Ecoflex) were used as the polymeric matrices. Continuous heating-cooling thermal cycling ranging from room temperature (RT~25 °C) to 80 °C was performed in order to determine the thermoresistive sensitivity, hysteresis and residual fractional change in electrical resistance after each cycle. The thermoresistive response was nearly linear, with negative temperature coefficient of resistance at the heating and cooling zones for CNTY/ OOMOO and CNTY/Ecoflex specimens. The average value of this coefficient at the heating and cooling sections was - 6.65×10-4 °C-1 for CNTY/OOMOO and -7.35×10-4 °C-1 for CNTY/Ecoflex. Both monofilament composites showed a negligible negative residual electrical resistance with an average value of ~ -0.08% for CNTY/OOMOO and ~ -0.20% for CNTY/Ecoflex after each cycle. The hysteresis yielded ~19.3% for CNTY/OOMOO and ~29.2% in CNTY/Ecoflex after each cycle. Therefore, the curing kinetics and viscosity play a paramount role in the electrical response of the CNTY immersed into these rubbery matrices.


Full Text:



Thostenson E.T., Chou T.-W. 2006. “Carbon nanotube networks: sensing of distributed strain and damage for life prediction and self-healing”. Adv. Mater. 18: 2837-2841.2.Anike J.C., Belay K., Abot J.L. 2019. “Effect of twist on the electromechanical properties of carbon nanotube yarns”. Carbon 142: 491-503.3.Anike J.C., Belay K., Abot J.L. 2018. “Piezoresistive response of carbon nanotube yarns under tension: parametric effects and phenomenology”. New Carbon Mater. 33: 140-154.4.Anike J.C., Le H., Brodeur G., Kadavan M., Abot J.L. 2017. “Piezoresistive response of integrated CNT yarns under compression and tension: the effect of lateral constraint”. J. Carbon Res. 3: 14.5.Miao M. 2011. “Electrical conductivity of pure carbon nanotube yarns”. Carbon 49: 3755-3761.6.Vilatela J.J., Khare R., Windle A.H. 2012. “The hierarchical structure and properties of multifunctional carbon nanotube fibre composites”. Carbon 50: 1227-1234.7.Niven J.F., Johnson M.B., Juckes S.M., White M.A., Alvarez N.T., Shanov V. 2016 “Influence of annealing on thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube yarns”. Carbon 99: 485-490.8.Lekawa-Raus A., Walczak K., Kozlowski G., Wozniak M., Hopkins S.C., Koziol K.K. 2015.” Resistance-temperature dependence in carbon nanotube fibres”. Carbon 84:118:123.9.Zhang M., Atkinson K. R., Baughman R.H. 2004. “Multifunctional carbon nanotube yarns by downsizing an ancient technology”. Science 306: 1358-1361.10.Balam A., Cen-Puc M., May-Pat A., Abot J.L., Avilés F. 2019. “Influence of polymer matrix on the sensing capabilities of carbon nanotube polymeric thermistors”. Smart Mater. Struct. 29: 015012.11.Balam A., Cen-Puc M., Rodriguez-Uicab O., Abot J.L., Aviles F. 2020. “Cyclic thermoresistivity of freestanding and polymer embedded carbon nanotube yarns”. Adv. Eng. Mater. 22: 2000220.12.Rodriguez-Uicab O., Abot J.L., Aviles F. 2020. “Electrical resistance sensing of epoxy curing using an embedded carbon nanotube yarn”. Sensors 20: 3220.13.Jung Y., Kim T., Park C.R. 2015. “Effect of polymer infiltration on structure and properties of carbon nanotube yarns”. Carbon 88: 60-69.14.Qiu J., Terrones J., Vilatela J.J., Vickers M.E., Elliot J.A., Windle A.H., 2013. “Liquid infiltration into carbon nanotube fibers: effect on structure and electrical properties”. ACS Nano 7: 8412-8422.15.Terrones J., Elliot J.A., Vilatela J.J., Windle A.H. 2014. “Electric field modulated non-ohmic behavior of carbon nanotube fibers in polar liquids”. ACS Nano 8: 8497-8504.16.Rodriguez-Uicab O., Guay I., Abot J.L., Aviles F. 2021. “Effect of polymer viscosity and polymerization kinetics on the electrical response of carbon nanotube yarn/vinyl ester monofilament composites”. Polymers 13: 783.17.OOMOO™ 30 Product Information | Smooth-On, Inc. Available online:™ 00-50 Product Information | Smooth-On, Inc. Available online: X., Cai X., Zhang J. 2018. “A novel crosslinking agent of polymethyl (ketoxime) siloxane for room temperature vulcanized silicone rubbers: synthesis, properties and thermal stability”. RSC Advances 8: 12517-12525.20.Ebbesen T., Lezec H., Hiura H., Bennett J., Ghaemi H., Thio T. 1996. “Electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes”. Nature: 382:54.21.Yi W., Lu L., Dian-Lin Z., Pan Z.W., Zie S.S.1999. “Linear specific heat of carbon nanotubes”. Phys. Rev.B.59: R9015.22.Crasto A., Kim R.1993 “Using carbon fiber piezoresistivity to measure residual stresses in composites”. In Proceedings of the American Society for Composites 8th Technical Conference, Technomic Publishing: Basel, Switzerland, pp 162-173.

CNTY/OOMOO and it increased to 29.2% for CNTY/Ecoflex. A better

understanding of the thermoresistive response of CNTY monofilament composites

under various temperature programs increases the know-how towards the

development of CNTY sensors integrated within polymers and their implementation

as thermistors.

Chung D.D.L. 2000. “Thermal analysis of carbon fiber polymer-matrix composites by electrical resistance measurement”. Thermochimica Acta 364:121-132.24.Sheng P. 1980. “Fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction in disordered materials”. Physical Review B 21: 2180.25.Perello D.J., Woo J.U., Dong J.B., Seung J.C., Kim M.J., Young H.L., Minhee Y. 2009. “Analysis of hopping conduction in semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotube devices”. J. Appl. Phys. 105: 124309.26.Gong S., Zhu Z.H., Li Z. 2017. “Electron tunnelling and hopping effects on the temperature coefficient of resistance of carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposites”. Phys. Chem. Chem. 19: 5113-5120.27.Ramos A., Pezzin S.H., Farias H.D., Becker D., Bello R.H., Coelho L.A.F. 2016. “Conductivity analysis of epoxy/carbon nanotubes composites by dipole relaxation and hopping models”. Physica B: Condens. Matter 57: 63.28.Can-Ortiz A., Abot J.L., Aviles F. 2019. “Electrical characterization of carbon-based fibers and their application for sensing relaxation induced piezoresistivity in polymer composites”. Carbon. 145: 119-130.29.Liao Z., Hussain M., Yao X., Navaratne R., Chagnon G. 2020. “A comprehensive thermo-viscoelastic experimental investigation of Ecoflex polymer”. Polym. Test. 86: 106478.30.Mirzadeh H., Shokrolahi F., Daliri M. 2003. “Effect of silicon rubber crosslink density on fibroblast cell behavior in vitro”. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 67: 727-732.31.Wool R.P., Sun, X.S. Bio-Based Polymers and Composites, Elsevier Academic Press: Burlington, MA, USA, 2005; pp. 202−255.


  • There are currently no refbacks.