Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Enhanced Fracture Toughness of Adhesive Joints with Doping Epoxy by Graphene Nanoplatelets



It is necessary to enhance the mechanical properties of adhesives to replace conventional joint methods with adhesive bonding. Epoxy in its pure state often suffers catastrophic damage due to its obvious brittleness and low fracture toughness. In this study, the double cantilever beam (DCB - Mode I) was used to characterize the fracture toughness of graphene/DGEBA-epoxy nanocomposite adhesive in bonded aluminium alloy joints and bonded composite joints. Adhesives based on an epoxy adhesive DGEBA (Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether) reinforced with two percentages (1wt.% and 2wt.%) of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared. In this study, one shows that the fracture toughness of adhesive nanocomposites was significantly better than neat epoxy-bonded adhesives. Both types of joints contain graphene resulting in increased fracture toughness. Therefore, the maximum fracture toughness was observed until the GNP reached 1wt.%, and then it began to decrease, but it is still higher than that of the pure adhesive joint. On the other hand, this work aims to determine the influence of interfacial interactions on the behavior of enhanced bonded joints and how graphene nanoplatelets can enhance the rigidity of the interface between the substrate and the adhesive. In addition, a numerical study using ABAQUS was performed and compared with the experiments performed on DCB. For the modeling of the damage in an assembly joint, the Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) was used for the fracture behavior of the adhesive.


Full Text:



T. A. Barnes and I. R. Pashby, “Joining techniques for aluminium spaceframes used in automobiles: Part II—adhesive bonding and mechanical fasteners,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 99, no. 1–3, pp. 72–79, 2000.[2]S. Mahaphasukwat, K. Shimamoto, S. Hayashida, Y. Sekiguchi, and C. Sato, “Mode I critical fracture energy of adhesively bonded joints between glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics,” Appl. Adhes. Sci., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2015.[3]P. Feraboli and A. Masini, “Development of carbon/epoxy structural components for a high performance vehicle,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 323–330, 2004.[4]P. Beardmore and C. F. Johnson, “The potential for composites in structural automotive applications,” Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 251–281, 1986.[5]M. M. Abdel Wahab, “Fatigue in adhesively bonded joints: a review,” Int. Sch. Res. Not., vol. 2012, 2012.[6]A. D. Crocombe, C. Y. Ong, C. M. Chan, M. M. A. Wahab, and I. A. Ashcroft, “Investigating fatigue damage evolution in adhesively bonded structures using backface strain measurement,” J. Adhes., vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 745–776, 2002.[7]V. Shenoy, I. A. Ashcroft, G. W. Critchlow, A. D. Crocombe, and M. M. A. Wahab, “An investigation into the crack initiation and propagation behaviour of bonded single-lap joints using backface strain,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 361–371, 2009.[8]A. Pirondi and F. Moroni, “Simulation of mixed-mode I/II fatigue crack propagation in adhesive joints with a modified cohesive zone model,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., vol. 25, no. 18, pp. 2483–2499, 2011.[9]S. Azari, M. Papini, J. A. Schroeder, and J. K. Spelt, “The effect of mode ratio and bond interface on the fatigue behavior of a highly-toughened epoxy,” Eng. Fract. Mech., vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 395–414, 2010.[10]X. X. Xu, A. D. Crocrombe, and P. A. Smith, “Fatigue behaviour of joints bonded with either filled, or filled and toughened, adhesive,” Int. J. Fatigue, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 469–477, 1994.[11]A. Campos, A. M. P. De Jesus, J. Correia, and J. J. L. Morais, “Fatigue crack growth behavior of bonded aluminum joints,” Procedia Eng., vol. 160, pp. 270–277, 2016.[12]M. Nachtane, M. Tarfaoui, S. Sassi, A. El Moumen, and D. Saifaoui, “An investigation of hygrothermal aging effects on high strain rate behaviour of adhesively bonded composite joints,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 172, pp. 111–120, 2019.[13]S. Sassi, M. Tarfaoui, and H. Ben Yahia, “An investigation of in-plane dynamic behavior of adhesively-bonded composite joints under dynamic compression at high strain rate,” Compos. Struct., vol. 191, pp. 168–179, 2018.[14]E. Oussama, T. Mostapha, M. Fodil, B. Steven, and S. Ajit, “Experimental study of the strength of Aluminum/Aluminum and Composite/Composite adhesively bonded joints under dynamic loading.”[15]O. Essersi, M. Tarfaoui, S. W. Boyd, F. Meraghni, and R. A. Shenoi, “Dynamic study of adhesively bonded double lap composite joints,” 2009.

M. Tarfaoui, K. Lafdi, and A. El Moumen, “Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes based polymer composites,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 103, pp. 113–121, 2016.[17]M. Chihi, M. Tarfaoui, Y. Qureshi, H. Benyahia, and C. Bouraoui, “Graphene nanofillers as a player to improve the dynamic compressive response and failure behavior of carbon/epoxy composite,” Nanotechnology, vol. 31, no. 42, p. 425709, 2020.[18]M. Chihi, M. Tarfaoui, C. Bouraoui, and A. El Moumen, “Effect of CNTs additives on the energy balance of carbon/epoxy nanocomposites during dynamic compression test,” Polymers (Basel)., vol. 12, no. 1, p. 194, 2020.[19]D. Beicha, T. Kanit, Y. Brunet, A. Imad, A. El Moumen, and Y. Khelfaoui, “Effective transverse elastic properties of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites,” Mech. Mater., vol. 102, pp. 47–53, 2016.[20]N. Al Habis, A. El Moumen, M. Tarfaoui, and K. Lafdi, “Mechanical properties of carbon black/poly (ε-caprolactone)-based tissue scaffolds,” Arab. J. Chem., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 3210–3217, 2020.[21]M. You, Y. Zheng, X.-L. Zheng, and W.-J. Liu, “Effect of metal as part of fillet on the tensile shear strength of adhesively bonded single lap joints,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 365–369, 2003.[22]H. Khoramishad and S. M. J. Razavi, “Metallic fiber-reinforced adhesively bonded joints,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., vol. 55, pp. 114–122, 2014.[23]Q. Meng et al., “Toughening polymer adhesives using nanosized elastomeric particles,”J.Mater. Res., vol. 29, no. 5, p. 665, 2014.[24]A. J. Kinloch, J. H. Lee, A. C. Taylor, S. Sprenger, C. Eger, and D. Egan, “Toughening structural adhesives via nano-and micro-phase inclusions,” J. Adhes., vol. 79, no. 8–9, pp. 867–873, 2003.[25]Q. Meng et al., “Nanosilica-toughened polymer adhesives,” Mater. Des., vol. 61, pp. 75–86, 2014.[26]B. C. Kim and S. W. Park, “Fracture toughness of the nano-particle reinforced epoxy composite,” Compos. Struct., vol. 86, no. 1–3, pp. 69–77, 2008.[27]J. M. Wernik and S. A. Meguid, “On the mechanical characterization of carbon nanotube reinforced epoxy adhesives,” Mater. Des., vol. 59, pp. 19–32, 2014.[28]S. Khammassi, M. Tarfaoui, Y. Qureshi, and H. Benyahia, “Mechanical properties of graphene nanoplatelets reinforced epikote 828 under dynamic compression,” Mech. Mater., vol. 158, p. 103873, 2021, doi:[29]S. Chatterjee, F. Nafezarefi, N. H. Tai, L. Schlagenhauf, F. A. Nüesch, and B. T. T. Chu, “Size and synergy effects of nanofiller hybrids including graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes in mechanical properties of epoxy composites,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 50, no. 15, pp. 5380–5386, 2012.[30]B. B. Johnsen, A. J. Kinloch, R. D. Mohammed, A. C. Taylor, and S. Sprenger, “Toughening mechanisms of nanoparticle-modified epoxy polymers,” Polymer (Guildf)., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 530–541, 2007.[31]B. Qi, Q. X. Zhang, M. Bannister, and Y.-W. Mai, “Investigation of the mechanical properties of DGEBA-based epoxy resin with nanoclay additives,” Compos. Struct., vol. 75, no. 1–4, pp. 514–519, 2006

R. Hollertz, S. Chatterjee, H. Gutmann, T. Geiger, F. A. Nüesch, and B. T. T. Chu, “Improvement of toughness and electrical properties of epoxy composites with carbon nanotubes prepared by industrially relevant processes,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, no. 12,p.125702, 2011.[33]S.-Y. Yang et al., “Synergetic effects of graphene platelets and carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy composites,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 793–803, 2011.[34]Y. T. Park et al., “Epoxy toughening with low graphene loading,” Adv. Funct. Mater., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 575–585, 2015.[35]H. Khoramishad, M. Ebrahimijamal, and M. Fasihi, “The effect of graphene oxide nano‐platelets on fracture behavior of adhesively bonded joints,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1905–1916, 2017.[36]C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science (80-. )., vol. 321, no. 5887, pp. 385–388, 2008.[37]X. Wu et al., “Synergistic Delamination Toughening of Glass Fiber-Aluminum Laminates by Surface Treatment and Graphene Oxide Interleaf,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, p. 74, 2020, doi: 10.1186/s11671-020-03306-z.[38]X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol., vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 491–495, 2008.[39]A. A. Balandin et al., “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 902–907, 2008.[40]S. Khammassi, M. Tarfaoui, and K. Lafdi, “Study of mechanical performance of polymer nanocomposites reinforced with exfoliated graphite of different mesh sizes using micro-indentation,” J. Compos. Mater., p. 0021998321993211, 2021.[41]S. Khammassi and M. Tarfaoui, “Influence of exfoliated graphite filler size on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical polymer properties,” J. Compos. Mater., 2020, doi: 10.1177/0021998320918639.[42]M. A. Rafiee, J. Rafiee, Z. Wang, H. Song, Z.-Z. Yu, and N. Koratkar, “Enhanced mechanical properties of nanocomposites at low graphene content,” ACS Nano, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 3884–3890, 2009.[43]C. Kostagiannakopoulou, T. H. Loutas, G. Sotiriadis, A. Markou, and V. Kostopoulos, “On the interlaminar fracture toughness of carbon fiber composites enhanced with graphene nano-species,” Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 118, pp. 217–225, 2015.[44]M. Fang, K. Wang, H. Lu, Y. Yang, and S. Nutt, “Covalent polymer functionalization of graphene nanosheets and mechanical properties of composites,” J. Mater. Chem., vol. 19, no. 38, pp. 7098–7105, 2009.[45]W. Qin, F. Vautard, L. T. Drzal, and J. Yu, “Mechanical and electrical properties of carbon fiber composites with incorporation of graphene nanoplatelets at the fiber–matrix interphase,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 69, pp. 335–341, 2015.[46]B. Zhang, R. Asmatulu, S. A. Soltani, L. N. Le, and S. S. A. Kumar, “Mechanical and thermal properties of hierarchical composites enhanced by pristine graphene and graphene oxide nanoinclusions,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 131, no. 19, 2014.

X. Zhang et al., “Interfacial microstructure and properties of carbon fiber composites modified with graphene oxide,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1543–1552, 2012.[48]H. Ning et al., “Interlaminar mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminates modified with graphene oxide interleaf,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 91, pp. 224–233, 2015.[49]A. K. Pathak, M. Borah, A. Gupta, T. Yokozeki, and S. R. Dhakate, “Improved mechanical properties of carbon fiber/graphene oxide-epoxy hybrid composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 135, pp. 28–38, 2016, doi:[50]S. H. Yoon, B. C. Kim, K. H. Lee, and D. G. Lee, “Improvement of the Adhesive Fracture Toughness of Bonded Aluminum Joints Using E-Glass Fibers at Cryogenic Temperature,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 429–444, Jan. 2010, doi: 10.1163/016942409X12541266699635.[51]R. Lopes Fernandes, S. Teixeira de Freitas, M. K. Budzik, J. A. Poulis, and R. Benedictus, “Role of adherend material on the fracture of bi-material composite bonded joints,” Compos. Struct., vol. 252, p. 112643, 2020, doi:[52]L. Hamitouche, M. Tarfaoui, and A. Vautrin, “An interface debonding law subject to viscous regularization for avoiding instability: Application to the delamination problems,” Eng. Fract. Mech., vol. 75, no. 10, pp. 3084–3100, 2008, doi:[53]M. C. Ezzine, A. Amiri, M. Tarfaoui, and K. Madani, “Damage of bonded, riveted and hybrid (bonded/riveted) joints, Experimental and numerical study using CZM and XFEM methods,” Adv. Aircr. Spacecr. Sci., vol. 5, no. 5, p. 595, 2018.[54]M. Tarfaoui, L. Hamitouche, S. Khammassi, and O. Shah, “Examination of the Delamination of a Stitched Laminated Composite with Experimental and Numerical Analysis Using Mode I Interlaminar,” Arab. J. Sci. Eng., 2020, doi: 10.1007/s13369-20-04599-z.


  • There are currently no refbacks.