Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Modeling and Simulation of the Curing Process of Epoxy Resins and Fiber Composites

ANASTASIA MULIANA

Abstract


This study discusses simulations of the curing process in epoxy and fiberreinforced polymer composites incorporating changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy during curing at various temperatures. A coupled constitutive model that includes an exothermic process from the cross-linking, heat conduction across the specimen and deformations of the specimen from the thermal expansion and shrinkage effects is formulated. The model is used to capture the curing process in the epoxy resin. The coupled constitutive model is then integrated into a micromechanics model of fiber-reinforced composites and used to study the influence of epoxy curing on the formation of residual stresses in the composites. Furthermore, the micromechanics model is also used to predict the macroscopic properties, i.e., elastic moduli, of the cured composites. The model can then be used to understand the influence of processing parameters, i.e., temperatures and pressure, on the formation of residual stresses and their consequences on the overall properties of cured composites.


DOI
10.12783/asc36/35831

Full Text:

PDF

References


Parlevliet, P.P., H.E. Bersee, and A. Beukers, Residual stresses in thermoplastic

composites–a study of the literature. Part III: Effects of thermal residual stresses.

Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2007. 38(6): p. 1581-1596.

Potter, K., Resin transfer moulding. 2012: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kamal, M.R., Thermoset characterization for moldability analysis. Polymer Engineering &

Science, 1974. 14(3): p. 231-239.

Mijovic, J. and J.D. Ott, Modeling of chemorheology of an amine-epoxy system of the type

used in advanced composites. Journal of composite materials, 1989. 23(2): p. 163-194.

Aldridge, M., et al., In situ analysis of the relationship between cure kinetics and the

mechanical modulus of an epoxy resin. Macromolecules, 2014. 47(23): p. 8368-8376.

Singer G, Sinn G., Lichtenegger HC, Veigel S., Zecchini M. Evaluation of in-situ shrinkage

and expansion properties of polymer composite materials for adhesive anchor systems by a

novel approach based on digital image correlation. Polymer Testing, 79, 106035, 2019.

Struzziero G, Remy B, and Skordos AA. Measurement of thermal conductivity of epoxy

resins during cure. J. Applied Polymer Science, 47015, 2019.

Lange, J., et al., Residual stress build-up in thermoset films cured above their ultimate glass

transition temperature. Polymer, 1995. 36(16): p. 3135-3141.

Lange, J., et al., Residual stress build-up in thermoset films cured below their ultimate glass

transition temperature. Polymer, 1997. 38(4): p. 809-815.

Muliana A., Spatial and Temporal Changes in Physical Properties of Epoxy during Curing

and Their Effects on the Residual Stresses and Properties of Cured Epoxy and Composites,

under review 2021.

Muliana, A and Rajagopal, K., Modeling the Response of Nonlinear Viscoelastic

Biodegradable Polymeric Stents. Int. J Solids and Structures, 49(7-8), pp. 989-1000, 2012.

Khan, KA and Muliana, A. Fully Coupled Heat Conduction and Deformation Analyses in

Viscoelastic Structures. Mechanics Time-dependent Materials, 16(4), pp. 461-489, 2012.

Muliana, A.H. and J.S. Kim, A two-scale homogenization framework for nonlinear effective

thermal conductivity of laminated composites. Acta Mechanica, 2010. 212(3): p. 319-347.

Muliana, A.H. and S. Sawant, Responses of viscoelastic polymer composites with

temperature and time dependent constituents. Acta Mechanica, 2009. 204(3): p. 155-173.

Fan Y, Krauklis AE, Gagani A, Saeter E, Echtermeyer A, Predicting multi-axial diffusion

of water in laminated composite structural components, Composite Structures, 2021 in

press.

Khan, K and Muliana, A., “Fully Coupled Heat Conduction and Deformation Analyses of

Viscoelastic Composites” Composite Structures, 94(6), pp. 2025-2037, 2012.

Struzziero G, Remy B, and Skordos AA. Measurement of thermal conductivity of epoxy

resins during cure. J. Applied Polymer Science, 47015, 2019.

Kim YK and White SR. Stress relaxation behavior of 3501-6 epoxy resin during cure.

Polymer Engineering and Science, 36, pp. 2852-2862, 1996.

Pilling, M.W., Yates, B., Black, M.A.: The thermal conductivity of carbon fibre-reinforced

composites. J. Mater. Sci. 14, 1326–1338, 1979.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.