Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Dynamic Impact Resistance of Composite Sandwich Panels with 3-D Printed Polymer Syntactic Foam Cores

H. R. TEWANI, DILEEP BONTHU, H. S. BHARATH, MRITYUNJAY DODDAMANI, P. PRABHAKAR

Abstract


Polymer-based syntactic foams find use in the marine industry as primary structural materials due to their inherent lightweight nature and enhanced mechanical properties relative to pure HDPE. 3-D printing these materials circumvents the use of joining assemblies, enabling the production of complex shapes as standalone structures. Although the quasi-static response of these 3D printed foams has been well studied independently in recent years, their dynamic impact resistance and tolerance as potential core material for sandwich panels have not been the focus. Moreover, 3D printing is known to impart directionality in the printed syntactic foams, which may introduce failure mechanisms typically not observed in molded foams. It is therefore important to investigate the mechanics of 3-D printed syntactic foam core composite sandwich structures under impact loading and characterize their failure mechanisms for establishing dynamic impact resistance. To this end, 3-D printed syntactic foams have been developed using rasters of High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Glass MicroBalloon (GMB) fillers by adopting the Fused Raster Fabrication (FFF) technique. The current study is performed to assess the impact performance of these composite foam cores based on the volume fraction of fillers and print orientation. The weight percentage of GMB fillers in printed specimens ranges from 0% to 60% in increments of 20%. This study presents the impact response of these composite sandwich panels at different energy levels, in compliance with ASTM D7136/D7136M - 20. Observations suggest that an increase in GMB % in HDPE matrix improves the impact performance in terms of the peak load of the material, but the failure behavior becomes brittle to an extent. Observing the failed specimens under a Micro-CT scanner captures the failure morphologies and helps characterize failure processes during impact. It is noticed that core materials with higher GMB content are prone to individual raster breakage and delamination at the back face, in addition to debonding between individual rasters. Specimens printed along the longer dimension (y-direction) impart more warping in the final sandwich structures than that of specimens printed along the shorter dimension (x-direction). Therefore, they are more susceptible to delamination at the back face. Addition of GMB fillers mitigate the tendency of the sandwich panels to warp.


DOI
10.12783/asc36/35799

Full Text:

PDF

References


A. Redmann, M. C. Montoya-Ospina, R. Karl, N. Rudolph, and T. A. Osswald, “High-force

dynamic mechanical analysis of composite sandwich panels for aerospace structures,”

Compos. Part C Open Access, vol. 5, p. 100136, Jul. 2021, doi:

1016/j.jcomc.2021.100136.

J. Wang, C. Shi, N. Yang, H. Sun, Y. Liu, and B. Song, “Strength, stiffness, and panel

peeling strength of carbon fiber-reinforced composite sandwich structures with aluminum

honeycomb cores for vehicle body,” Compos. Struct., vol. 184, pp. 1189–1196, Jan. 2018,

doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.10.038.

M. S. Hoo Fatt and D. Sirivolu, “Marine composite sandwich plates under air and water

blasts,” Mar. Struct., vol. 56, pp. 163–185, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.marstruc.2017.08.004.

V. Birman and G. A. Kardomateas, “Review of current trends in research and applications of

sandwich structures,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 142. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 221–240,

Jun. 01, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.01.027.

L. Peroni et al., “Investigation of the mechanical behaviour of AISI 316L stainless steel

syntactic foams at different strain-rates,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 66, pp. 430–442, Nov.

, doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.06.001.

G. Castro, S. R. Nutt, and X. Wenchen, “Compression and low-velocity impact behavior of

aluminum syntactic foam,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 578, pp. 222–229, Aug. 2013, doi:

1016/j.msea.2013.04.081.

A. K. Singh, B. Patil, N. Hoffmann, B. Saltonstall, M. Doddamani, and N. Gupta, “Additive

Manufacturing of Syntactic Foams: Part 1: Development, Properties, and Recycling

Potential of Filaments,” Jom, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 303–309, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11837-017-

-7.

A. K. Singh, B. Saltonstall, B. Patil, N. Hoffmann, M. Doddamani, and N. Gupta, “Additive

Manufacturing of Syntactic Foams: Part 2: Specimen Printing and Mechanical Property

Characterization,” Jom, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 310–314, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11837-017-2731-x.

G. Li and V. D. Muthyala, “A cement based syntactic foam,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 478,

no. 1–2, pp. 77–86, Apr. 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2007.05.084.

B. R. Bharath Kumar, M. Doddamani, S. E. Zeltmann, N. Gupta, M. R. Ramesh, and S.

Ramakrishna, “Processing of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foams using an industrial scale

polymer injection molding machine,” Mater. Des., vol. 92, pp. 414–423, Feb. 2016.

M. L. Jayavardhan, B. R. Bharath Kumar, M. Doddamani, A. K. Singh, S. E. Zeltmann, and

N. Gupta, “Development of glass microballoon/HDPE syntactic foams by compression

molding,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 130, pp. 119–131, Dec. 2017, doi:

1016/j.compositesb.2017.07.037.

A. K. Singh, A. J. Deptula, R. Anawal, M. Doddamani, and N. Gupta, “Additive

Manufacturing of Three-Phase Syntactic Foams Containing Glass Microballoons and Air

Pores,” Jom, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 1520–1527, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s11837-019-03355-5.

D. Bonthu, H. S. Bharath, S. Gururaja, P. Prabhakar, and M. Doddamani, “3D printing of

syntactic foam cored sandwich composite,” Compos. Part C Open Access, vol. 3, p. 100068,

Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jcomc.2020.100068.

N. Nawafleh, W. Wright, N. Dariavach, and E. Celik, “3D-printed thermoset syntactic foams

with tailorable mechanical performance,” J. Mater. Sci., vol. 55, no. 33, pp. 16048–16057,

, doi: 10.1007/s10853-020-05111-6.

N. van de Werken, H. Tekinalp, P. Khanbolouki, S. Ozcan, A. Williams, and M. Tehrani,

“Additively manufactured carbon fiber-reinforced composites: State of the art and

perspective,” Addit. Manuf., vol. 31, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.100962.

B. Patil, B. R. Bharath Kumar, and M. Doddamani, “Compressive behavior of fly ash based

D printed syntactic foam composite,” Mater. Lett., vol. 254, pp. 246–249, Nov. 2019, doi:

1016/j.matlet.2019.07.080.

H. S. Bharath, A. Sawardekar, S. Waddar, P. Jeyaraj, and M. Doddamani, “Mechanical

behavior of 3D printed syntactic foam composites,” Composite Structures, vol. 254. Elsevier

Ltd, p. 112832, Dec. 15, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112832.

Y. Chen, S. Hou, K. Fu, X. Han, and L. Ye, “Low-velocity impact response of composite

sandwich structures: Modelling and experiment,” Compos. Struct., vol. 168, pp. 322–334,

May 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.02.064.

G. Pitarresi et al., “A comparative evaluation of crashworthy composite sandwich

structures,” Compos. Struct., vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 34–44, Mar. 2007, doi:

1016/j.compstruct.2005.08.008.

W. He, L. Yao, X. Meng, G. Sun, D. Xie, and J. Liu, “Effect of structural parameters on

low-velocity impact behavior of aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures with CFRP face

sheets,” Thin-Walled Struct., vol. 137, pp. 411–432, Apr. 2019.

W. He, S. Lu, K. Yi, S. Wang, G. Sun, and Z. Hu, “Residual flexural properties of CFRP

sandwich structures with aluminum honeycomb cores after low-velocity impact,” Int. J.

Mech. Sci., vol. 161–162, p. 105026, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2019.105026.

M. Akil Hazizan and W. J. Cantwell, “The low velocity impact response of foam-based

sandwich structures,” Compos. Part BEngineering, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 193–204, Apr. 2002.

A. G. Castellanos and P. Prabhakar, “Elucidating the mechanisms of damage in foam core

sandwich composites under impact loading and low temperatures,” J. Sandw. Struct. Mater.,

, doi: 10.1177/1099636221993848.

P. Breunig et al., “Dynamic impact behavior of syntactic foam core sandwich composites,”

J. Compos. Mater., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 535–547, 2020, doi: 10.1177/0021998319885000.

N. Gupta and E. Woldesenbet, “Microballoon wall thickness effects on properties of

syntactic foams,” J. Cell. Plast., vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 461–480, 2004, doi:

1177/0021955X04048421.

A. Corigliano, E. Rizzi, and E. Papa, “Experimental characterization and numerical

simulations of a syntactic-foam/glass-fibre composite sandwich,” Compos. Sci. Technol.,

vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 2169–2180, Aug. 2000, doi: 10.1016/S0266-3538(00)00118-4.

A. T. Zehnder, V. Patel, and T. J. Rose, “Micro-CT Imaging of Fibers in Composite

Laminates under High Strain Bending,” Exp. Tech., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 531–540, 2020, doi:

1007/s40799-020-00374-9.

B. H S, D. Bonthu, P. Prabhakar, and M. Doddamani, “Three-dimensional printed

lightweight composite foams,” ACS Omega, vol. 5, no. 35, pp. 22536–22550, 2020, doi:

1021/acsomega.0c03174.

Hexcel Corporation, “AS-4 3K Plain Weave Carbon Fiber Data Sheet.”

https://www.rockwestcomposites.com/media/wysiwyg/AS4_1.pdf.

I. Mitsubishi Chemical Carbon Fiber and Composites, “Newport 301 - Resin System Data

Sheet.” https://www.rockwestcomposites.com/media/wysiwyg/MRCFC_NB301_Data.pdf.

ASTM International, “D7136- 15 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Damage

Resistance of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite to a Drop-Weight Impact

Event,” ASTM Int. Des. D, vol. i, pp. 1–16, 2015, doi: 10.1520/D7136.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.