Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Thermal Ablation Modelling of C/SiC for Hypersonic Applications

EDGAR AVALOS, ALEJANDRA G. CASTELLANOS

Abstract


Hypersonic vehicles are designed to operate at speeds above Mach 5. These vehicles are optimized to have low drag and have thin, slender bodies. The leading edges (nose and wings) are subjected to very high temperatures (above 3000 °C) due to the high heat fluxes. Carbon fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide matrix (C/SiC) composite is a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) that shows great potential for hypersonic applications as it has a low specific weight, high specific strength, and high specificity specific modulus, good thermal stability, and oxidation resistance. C/SiC can be used in leading edges, acreage, hot structures, and the propulsion system. The primary challenge of C/SiC is environmental durability caused by the oxidation and ablation of the material when subjected to extreme heat fluxes. Coatings must be added to the C/SiC substrate to withstand harsh environments at hypersonic speed. These coatings consist of an ultra- high temperature ceramic, an environmental barrier coating (EBC), and a bond coat (BC). This project aims to develop a computational model that will predict the thermal ablation of UHTC coatings when subjected to large heat fluxes. The finite element software used was ABAQUS 2020. Two different models in 2D were created, one for the ablation and one for the stress distribution through the coating. Ablative heat flux was applied at the surface on one side while the other side remains insulated. Preliminary results have shown that as the material is ablated, the temperature across the model started to rise due to the heat flux.


DOI
10.12783/asc36/35744

Full Text:

PDF

References


Van Wie, D. M., Drewry Jr., D. G., King, D. E., & Hudson, C. M. (2004). The hypersonic environment: Required operating conditions and design challenges. Journal of Materials Science, 39(19), 5915–5924. https://doi.org/10.1023/b:jmsc.0000041688.68135.8b

Marshall, D., Cox, B., Kroll, P., Hilmas, G., Fahrenholtz, W., Raj, R., & Zok, F. (2014). National Hypersonic Science Center for Materials and Structures. TELEDYNE SCIENTIFIC COMPANY THOUSAND OAKS CA.

Wie, David & D'Alessio, Stephen & White, Michael. (2005). Hypersonic airbreathing propulsion. Johns Hopkins Apl Technical Digest. 26. pp. 430-436.

Fahrenholtz, W. G., Wuchina, E. J., Lee, W. E., & Zhou, Y. (2014). In Ultra-high temperature ceramics: materials for extreme environment applications (pp. 6–32). essay, Wiley, ACers.

Bansal, N. P., & Lamon, J. (2015). In Ceramic matrix composites: materials, modeling and technology (pp. 236–272). essay, Wiley.

Levine SR, Opila EJ, Halbig MC, Kiser JD, Singh M, & Salem JA. Evaluation of ultrahigh temperature ceramics for aeropropulsion use. J Eur Ceram Soc 2002;22:2757-67.

Yan, C., Liu, R., Cao, Y., Zhang, C., & Zhang, D. (2014). Ablation behavior and mechanism of C/ZrC, C/ZrC–SiC and C/SiC composites fabricated by polymer infiltration and pyrolysis process. Corrosion Science, 86, 131–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2014.05.005

Blanco, C., Casal, E., Granda, M., & Menéndez, R. (2003). Influence of fibre–matrix interface on the fracture behaviour of carbon-carbon composites. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 23(15), 2857–2866. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0955-2219(03)00298-x

Luo, R., Liu, T., Li, J., Zhang, H., Chen, Z., & Tian, G. (2004). Thermophysical properties of carbon/carbon composites and physical mechanism of thermal expansion and thermal conductivity. Carbon, 42(14), 2887–2895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.06.024

Han, J. C., He, X. D., Du, S. Y. (1995). Oxidation and ablation of 3D carbon-carbon composite at up to 3000 °C. Carbon, 33(4), 473–478. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6223(94)00172-v

Wen, G., Sui, S. H., Song, L., Wang, X. Y., & Xia, L. (2010). Formation of ZrC ablation protective coatings on carbon material by tungsten inert gas cladding technique. Corrosion Science, 52(9), 3018–3022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2010.05.015

Zhang, Q., He, J., Liu, W., & Zhong, M. (2003). Microstructure characteristics of ZrC-reinforced composite coating produced by laser cladding. Surface and Coatings Technology, 162(2-3), 140–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0257-8972(02)00697-7

Park, J. H., Jung, C. H., Kim, D. J., & Park, J. Y. (2008). Temperature dependency of the LPCVD growth of ZrC with the ZrCl4–CH4–H2 system. Surface and Coatings Technology, 203(3), 324–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2008.09.009

Clavería, I., Lostalé, A., Fernández, Á., Castell, P., Elduque, D., Mendoza, G., & Zubizarreta, C. (2019). Enhancement of Tribological Behavior of Rolling Bearings by Applying a Multilayer ZrN/ZrCN Coating. Coatings, 9(7), 434. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070434

Zhang, Y., Hu, H., Zhang, P., Hu, Z., Li, H., & Zhang, L. (2016). SiC/ZrB2–SiC–ZrC multilayer coating for carbon/carbon composites against ablation. Surface and Coatings Technology, 300, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.05.028

Milos, F., Chen, Y.-K., Milos, F., & Chen, Y.-K. (1997). Comprehensive model for multicomponent ablation thermochemistry. 35th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 91–0141. https://doi.org/10.2514/6.1997-141

E.J. Opila and R. Hann, “Paralinear Oxidation of CVD SiC in Water Vapor,” Journal of American Ceramic Society, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 197-205, 1997.

Wuchina, E., Opila, E., Opeka, M., Fahrenholtz, B., & Talmy, I. (2007). UHTCs: Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Materials for Extreme Environment Applications. The Electrochemical Society Interface, 16(4), pp. 30–36. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.f04074if

Mullenix, N., Povitsky, A., & Gaitonde, D. (2008). Modeling of Local Intense Ablation in Hypersonic Flight. 15th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference. https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2008-2555

Frei, W. (2016, March 30). Modeling Thermal Ablation for Material Removal.

Guo, J., Huang, H., & Xu, X. (2020). Protective effect of pyrolysis gases combustion against surface ablation under different Mach numbers. Acta Astronautica, 166, 209–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2019.10.032

Grigoriev, O. N., Galanov, B. A., Kotenko, V. A., Ivanov, S. M., Koroteev, A. V., & Brodnikovsky, N. P. (2010). Mechanical properties of ZrB2–SiC(ZrSi2) ceramics. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 30(11), 2173–2181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2010.03.022

Yan, C., Liu, R., Cao, Y., Zhang, C., & Zhang, D. (2014). Ablation behavior and mechanism of C/ZrC, C/ZrC–SiC and C/SiC composites fabricated by polymer infiltration and pyrolysis process. Corrosion Science, 86, 131–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2014.05.005

Jin, X., Fan, X., Lu, C., & Wang, T. (2018). Advances in oxidation and ablation resistance of high and ultra-high temperature ceramics modified or coated carbon/carbon composites. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 38(1), pp. 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.08.013

Tang, S., Deng, J., Wang, S., Liu, W., & Yang, K. (2007). Ablation behaviors of ultra-high temperature ceramic composites. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 465(1-2), pp. 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2007.02.040

Onay, O. K., & Eyi, S. (2020). Ablation Analyses of Optimized Nose Tips for Hypersonic Vehicles. Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 34(1), 78–89. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.t5644

Abdul-Aziz, A. (2018). Durability Modeling Review of Thermal- and Environmental-Barrier-Coated Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites Part I. Materials, 11(7), pp. 1251–1267. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071251

Fang, G., Ren, J., Shi, J., Gao, X., & Song, Y. (2020). Thermal Stress Analysis of Environmental Barrier Coatings Considering Interfacial Roughness. Coatings, 10(10), 947. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100947


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.